Arthritis has become a common problem, especially for older people. Sharp pain in the joints, decreased motion, and difficulties in moving have become a matter of concern for many people these days. And exactly this is where arthritis specialized podiatrist-designed shoes come into action.
Along with having a maintained lifestyle, it is necessary to choose the right pair of footwear for arthritis patients. Several shoe brands manufacture specific shoes for arthritis that give enough relief and combat against your joint pain. we’ve come up with a list of the best shoes for Arthritis. We have made this list after research of 68 hours, in which we read more than 237 reviews, looked for 20 brands, Tested & reviewed dozens of shoes for Arthritis.
- 1 Here is List of Best Shoes for Arthritic Feet for Women and Men in 2022
- 1.1 Gravity Defyer Proven Pain Relief Women’s G-Defy Ion Athletic Shoes
- 1.2 Nike Men’s Air Monarch IV Cross
- 1.3 Orthofeet Coral Stretchable Women Shoes
- 1.4 ECCO Women’s BiomFjuel Tie
- 1.5 ASICS Women’s Gel-Venture 6
- 1.6 Ryka Women’s Devotion Plus 2
- 1.7 Mephisto Men’s Match
- 1.8 Klogs Women’s Ashbury Boat Shoe
- 1.9 Skechers Men’s Afterburn Memory-Foam Lace-up Shoes
- 2 What is Arthritis?
- 3 How to Choose the Best Shoes for Arthritis?
- 3.1 1. The right shape and size of the shoe are essential:
- 3.2 2. Pay attention to the sole of the footwear for enhanced comfort:
- 3.3 3. Choose the show with enhanced arch support:
- 3.4 4. Choose the shoe material wisely:
- 3.5 5. Make sure the shoe comes with easy adjustability features:
- 3.6 6. Avoid High heels:
- 3.7 7. Choose a shoe having an excellent traction profile:
- 3.8 8. Always check the durability of the shoe:
- 5 Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Arthritis:
- 6 The bottom line:
Here is List of Best Shoes for Arthritic Feet for Women and Men in 2022
The G-Defy Ion shoes are made up of synthetic and fabric material, with a mesh fabric upper that facilitates adequate ventilation. It can keep your feet fresh and prevent irritation due to sogginess.
This shoe is available in a variety of colors like Teal/ Gray, Black/ Blue, Gray/ Pink, Black, White and Multicolored. The shoe size ranges from US 6 to US 11 and includes fits for extra wide feet. The heel height of this footwear is about 2.5-inches, conferring the most leveled heel-to-toe ratio that ensures stability and support to your aching feet.
The G-Defy athletic shoe is engineered to possess a very lightweight Omega sole incorporated with VersoShock technology that efficiently absorbs any impact arising due to the fast-paced activities of our daily lives. This shock-absorbing sole doesn’t let the impact to travel through your body and worsen joint ailments like arthritis. The use of a soft padded collar and tongue facilitates long-lasting comfort and helps to inhibit the pain endured by arthritis patients while walking or standing.
This footwear also features removable insoles that allow arthritis patients to insert customized orthotic support. The roomy toe box helps you to spread your toes and fingers inside the shoes properly, and in the long run, helps to retain a good posture for your bone health.
So, if you are searching for an ideal shoe to combat your arthritis foot pain with adequate cushioning and shock-resistance, then the G-Defy Ion athletic shoes will be apt for you.
What we love (Benefits):
- Impact-resistant VersoShock technology is used in the sole.
- The extra-depth design facilitates comfortable walking.
- Rubber outsoles have an excellent traction profile.
- It provides stability to your feet while walking or standing.
- The shoe works great for Plantar Fasciitis.
- Arch support is absent.
These man-made sneakers are working wonders in the market with their leather perforated upper and mesh tongue that confers excellent breathability to inhibit sweat-induced microbial growth on your feet. So, you can keep this shoe on for long-distance jogging without feeling irritation and keeping aside any foul odor arising due to sweat accumulation.
The combination of synthetic fabric and leather ensures a long lifetime of this footgear. The presence of a heel pull-tab aids easy on and off with the shoe. It demonstrates major sophisticated color combinations, including White/Metallic Silver/Midnight Navy, White/Cool Gray/Anthracite, White/Metallic Silver/Varsity Red, etc. The size chart includes regular to extra wide shoes ranging from US 6 to US 11.
For optimum comfort and support, this shoe uses a Foam Phylon midsole that also acts as an excellent impact inhibitor, thus protecting your joints from incurring any injury. It is especially beneficial for people having arthritis or other joint problems. Besides, there is a full-length encapsulated Air-Sole cushioned unit that increases the wearer’s comfort.
The durable, solid rubber outsole offers an impressive traction profile for various kinds of terrains. So, you can have a steady grip over any surface you are walking on, without the fear of slipping and hurting yourself. Also, the removable insole allows you to replace it with medical orthotics to heal your arthritis feet.
What we love (Benefits):
- The shaft measures low-top from the arch.
- Leather material facilitates high breathability.
- Air-cool cushioned soles absorb shocks to prevent arthritic pain from increasing.
- The padded tongue gives comfort to your bridge.
- Anti-slip and anti-skid properties allow for walking smoothly without falling.
- Many said that they face squeaking issues.
TheseOrthofeet Coral Stretchable shoes are stylish lace-up footwear that is best in providing solutions to orthopedic problems by virtue of their biomechanical design. These shoes are recommended for patients with plantar fasciitis and arthritis.
This shoe offers excellent airflow and prevents germs from growing inside due to accumulated sweat, and thus, resists skin diseases. It provides a perfect fit for all, as it is available in medium, wide and extra-wide variants, with sizes ranging from US 5 to US 12. This footwear comes in three funky colors, including Black, Turquoise, and Grey.
This footwear possesses an extremely lightweight sole with an ergonomic design to minimize the strains on your joints while walking. The premium orthotic insoles present in this shoe features an anatomical arch. It keeps your foot in proper shape and improves your walking and standing stance to minimize bone deformities. The insole is removable and allows the accommodation of custom orthotic supports.
The shoe is 1/4th-inch thick in the forefoot area that offers ample space for the accommodation of medical orthotics. Besides, the multiple cushioned layers provide a very soft, pillow-like support act as a great source of comfort to ease pain caused due to overpronation, flat feet, or arthritis.
The extra foam padding in the shoe works efficiently as a shock absorber and doesn’t allow harmful impacts from hard surfaces to affect your joints and limbs. The footgear also features a roomy toe box that allows you to spread your toes and walk properly without surging your foot pain. This feature even eases pressure on bunions, hammertoes, and swollen feet.
What we love (Benefits):
- The unique therapeutic design alleviates stress on joints and confers stability.
- Soft upper and smooth lining provides added comfort.
- Anatomical arch support reduces stress on feet due to a bad stance.
- Non-binding upper and a seam-free interior gives support to your feet.
- Air pockets help in air circulation and provide bounce to combat shock.
- Shoelaces are short.
The ECCO Women’s BiomFjuel Tie is a lace-up shoe, made up of 100% textile. It offers commendable durability along with excellent breathability to inhibit sogginess, odor, and germ build-up on your feet.
The bonded upper construction confers a great glove-like fit, along with the necessary support for a natural feel during workouts. It keeps the shoe attached to your feet properly and reduces any disturbances or torsions caused due to the movement of your feet.
This footwear hosts three cool color combinations, namely Dark Shadow/ Dark Shadow, Black/ Black, and Concrete/ White. The shoe size ranges from US 4 to US 11.5 and is suitable for regular fits.
Underneath the inlay sole, the shoe consists of a soft Strobel insert that improves comfort and lets your feet enjoy a great under-foot experience. The insoles can be replaced easily by custom orthotic inserts for arthritic patients having severe medical conditions.
The Biom last and directly injected PU midsole offers long-lasting cushioning along with incredible walking comfort. For optimal grip, this footwear features a flexible TPU sole with rubber inserts. The shoe is kept lightweight so that the patients suffering from joint pains like arthritis can carry it with ease.
The sole helps in maintaining low-to-the-ground features. It offers a natural foot position for improved walking stance and enhances ground adaptation, which can further minimize the impacts affecting your body while walking on hard surfaces. The presence of a padded tongue and collar, along with a durable reinforced toe box, increases the comfort level of the wearer.
What we love (Benefits):
- Biom technology offers a great fit and optimum cushioning.
- A durable and flexible outsole provides superior traction.
- Lightweight footwear takes away the walking stress.
- Synthetic bonded uppers boost natural feet movement relieving your pain.
Keep in mind (Drawbacks):
- Sufficient arch support is missing.
- Only the regular fit is available.
The ASICS Women’s Gel-Venture 6 sneaker comes with a lace-up closure that confers a secure fit. This shoe features fabric linings that keep your feet fresh and dry, even when you wear it for long durations in a day. So, you don’t have to worry about odor and rashes due to sweat. The man-made upper confers additional breathability and durability to the shoe.
This running footgear offers a plethora of color combinations to choose from. To name a few, we have Carbon/ Black/ Pink Peacock, Black/ Carbon/ Neon Lime, Carbon/ Mid Grey/ Seashell Pink, Indigo Blue/ Black/ Coral, Black/ Pixel Pink, Steel Grey/ Icy Morning, Black/ Ice Green/ Hot Orange and Slate Grey/ Frosted Rose. The shoe comes in a size range of US 5 to US 14, and it can efficiently accommodate a wide foot.
This Gel-Venture model from ASICS makes use of rearfoot gel cushioning technology to confer comfort, and at the same time, acts as a shock absorber for a smooth transition to midstance while walking or jogging. It tackles any harmful impact from reaching up to your body and thus is a great benefit for people with knee pain, hip pain, and arthritis.
For added comfort, the footbed is also adequately cushioned, and being detachable, it allows the usage of medical orthotics for a better-personalized fit. The model incorporates AHAR (ASICS High Abrasion Rubber) trail-specific outsole that offers excellent durability along with exceptional traction over uphill and downhill motion on multiple terrains.
The product also supports long-distance walking and jogging without straining your lower limbs, thus, healing your arthritic foot pain.
What we love (Benefits):
- Reversed lugs offer adequate uphill and downhill traction.
- Removable sock liner permits the usage of custom orthotics.
- Rearfoot gel cushioning technology combats impact from hard floors.
- Lightweight build delivers added stability and walking luxury.
- Inadequate toe room.
- It is not suitable for narrow foot types.
This footwear, being made of 100% synthetic material, offers optimum performance in terms of durability and comfort. The breathable mesh upper with synthetic supportive overlays ensures great comfort while walking and prevent sweat-related problems.
The lace-up closure is responsible for a perfect fit and does not disturb the wearer while walking or running. So, if you want to combat the arthritis pain in your foot, then you can effortlessly wear this shoe, as it will provide you with long-lasting comfort for about 12+ hours.
The Ryka Women’s Devotion Plus 2 walking shoe is available from US size 5 to US size 12 and permits accommodation of regular as well as wide foot type. It also hosts multiple color variants like Tea Rose, Black Purple, Cloud Grey, Vetiver, Navy Blazer, Grey/ Teal, Tempest Mesh, Grey/ Coral, and many more.
This footgear has been distinctively framed to suit a woman’s unique foot shape, build, and muscle movement. The extraordinary multilayered construction delivers great coziness and supports to enhance stability and improve walking stance, which ultimately benefits people with joint pain or arthritis. The shoe also features responsive cushioning that acts an impact-protector and shock-absorber, and simultaneously keep your foot relaxed while jogging or working out.
This footwear hosts an amalgamated modular network of re-zorb active foam and lycra lined tongue plus a comfort collar with built-in padding. All these exclusive features combined enhance the wearer’s comfort by a huge factor.
What we love (Benefits):
- It comes with feminine seamless overlays.
- Responsive cushioning gives underfoot comfort.
- Multi-layer build improves stability.
- Lightweight with a proper fit.
- Proper arch support is absent.
- The outsole traction needs improvement.
The Mephisto Men’s Match model is a 100% leather-made walking shoe with a lace-up closure design. The footwear offers amazing ventilation owing to its key manufacturing component, leather. It inhibits microbial growth in a soggy environment and keeps your feet healthy and fresh.
The durable upper and laid-back styling makes this shoe ideal for casual outings as well as everyday wear. It is very sturdy and built to look too classy with any outfit that you put on.
The shoe is designed in a plethora of sizes ranging from US 6 to US 15 and offers a regular fit. Some attractive colors hosted by this product includes Tan Grain, Birch Nubuck, Dark Brown Vintage, White Calf Leather, Camel Velour, and Black Full Grain.
The Mephisto Men’s Match walking shoe features Soft-Air Technology that provides soft walking comfort and acts as a proficient shock-absorber, preventing any impact from traveling up to your joints or vertebrae. Thus, this footgear specifically benefits people with orthopedic issues.
The use of the Caoutchouc rubber outsole maintains the flexibility of the shoe and also resists hardening or cracking over a certain period. This shoe also includes a removable insole made of latex, allowing the accommodation of customized medical orthotics. This insole lets you feel like you are walking on a carpet made of soft cushions.
The design of this footwear obeys the anatomical mapping of a human foot so that it can confer proper heel and arch support. Such ergonomic design, in the long run, plays an essential role in regulating your walking posture and keeps your lower limbs free from injury or arthritic pain.
What we love (Benefits):
- Caoutchouc rubber outer sole doesn’t harden or crack over time.
- The shoe is resoling-enabled, offering a high return on investment.
- Use of padded topline and tongue to reduce pressure points on your foot area.
- Aniline-dyed grain leather gives optimum breathability.
- The use of thick, full-grain leather can create overheating problems.
- Perforations in the insole increase friction with the foot base.
The Klog’s Women’s Ashbury Boat Shoe is manufactured from 100% leather, and this material confers to its excellent ventilation properties, making it suitable to be worn even for longer durations. The leather upper allows airflow, thus keeping your foot fresh and dry. It is needless to say that the amount of durability offered by this shoe is genuinely appreciable.
The Ashbury boat shoe is available in various sizes ranging from US 6 to US 8.5. And the elegant colors for this model are Black Smooth, Black Patent, Spring Dragonfly patent, and Rope Patent. This shoe is exceptionally classy and suitable for wearing with any formal apparel.
The shoe makes use of polyurethane, non-marking, anti-slip, flexible outer sole that provides excellent traction and resists slips and skids on dry terrains. The outsoles have been tested and approved to perform incredibly well on wet and oily surfaces as well. It thus prevents you from falling off and worsening your arthritic condition.
The insole of this shoe is also composed of polyurethane and provides scope for replacement with medical orthotics. High cushioning and support provided by the insoles keep your foot in place and do not allow your stance to deteriorate. This footgear is thus advantageous for people who have arthritis and plantar fasciitis.
What we love (Benefits):
- It offers 20+ hours of all-day comfort to your aching feet.
- PU outsoles offer incredibly high traction.
- Insoles provide adequate arch support.
- The stretch-ability of leather gives a comfortable and glove-like fit.
- No extra room is available for spreading your toes freely.
- Not suitable for extra-wide feet types.
This shoe from Skechers, being equipped with lace-up closure, provides a cozy and proper fitting to your feet. It uses 100% leather or synthetic fabric in its manufacturing, thereby increasing the lifetime of the shoe.
The breathable material offers great ventilation that keeps your foot fresh and dry and prevents germs from accumulating and causing skin disorders. Besides, the mesh fabric upper and side panels contribute to the breathability of the sneakers and give your feet a cooling effect.
This sneaker is available in multiple colors, including Brown/ Taupe, Charcoal, Black, Navy, Pebble/ Black, and Black/ Royal. The size of this shoe ranges from US 6.5 to US 16. It is meant for regular, as well as wide, and extra-wide feet types. With an adequate heel height of roughly 1.5-inches, this sneaker has been designed to support athletic training and workouts without straining your muscles and joints.
This sneaker comes with Memory Foam full-length cushioned insole that offers improved comfort and enhances your underfoot experience. The use of high-quality foam in the insole boosts up the overall lifetime of the shoe.
Additionally, the Article-Lyte midsole acts as an efficient shock-absorber that combats impact-induced injuries affecting your bone joints. The midsole is also known to provide adequate support and comfort to your foot to retain proper posture, thus, inhibiting feet pain in arthritis patients.
The flexible rubber outsole provides high traction and averts slips and skids while walking or running. It also delivers a bounce-back reaction and allows you to land on soft steps to minimize impacts caused due to hard surfaces. Thus, this shoe is safe for patients having chronic orthopedic ailments.
What we love (Benefits):
- Soft fabric shoe lining prevents irritation and aids airflow.
- Padded collar and cushioned mesh tongue give added comfort.
- Perforations at the front and sides prevent sweat accumulation and foul odor.
- Memory foam insoles provide cushioning comfort to your aching feet.
- Slightly baggy.
- Not suitable for use in wet seasons.
What is Arthritis?
Arthritis refers to the inflammation of joints. Swelling and tenderness involve more than one or two joints of your body, thereby making the situation worse with aging.
There are more than 100 forms of arthritis that have their own share of symptoms and pain. The most common forms of arthritis are as follows:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Septic arthritis
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Thumb arthritis
Severe arthritis that attacks the joints of your hands and legs affect the normal movement of your limbs, thereby leading to immense pain while doing some physical activities. Self-care, therapies, and medications are the most effective ways to treat arthritis and make situations better. Surgeries are also performed in case of severe conditions.
What Are the Symptoms of Arthritis?
There are several symptoms that you can experience if you have arthritis. Here are some of the significant ones that you come across that must be focused on immediately.
- Tenderness and swelling of bone joints occur.
- Sharp or intermittent pain is experienced in the areas, including wrists, hands, fingers, ankles, muscles, neck, etc.
- One may feel stiffness in the joints while moving.
- It becomes difficult to walk or do other physical activities.
- The slowdown of motion.
- Bumpy or bony outgrowth is formed around the areas of wrists, fingers, and toes.
- One may feel body fatigue.
- Physical deformities may occur due to immense pain for a long time.
- Redness occurs in the areas of inflammation.
- Stiffness persists for about 1½ hours after waking up in the morning or sitting for a long time.
What Are the Causes of Arthritis?
There is more than a single cause behind the arthritis problem. And several reasons cause the development of different types of arthritis in one’s body. Below are some of the common causes that are most likely to lead to arthritis.
- Bacterial or viral infections can sometimes directly or indirectly lead to arthritis.
- Severe injuries may cause osteoarthritis.
- Hereditary or genetic factors also play an important role in the development of arthritis.
- Metabolic abnormalities like hypercalcemia and enhanced level of uric acid lead to pseudogout and gout.
- The affected immunity system also causes various forms of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Damage of the cartilage cushions because of injury or infections interrupts the easy motion of joints.
How to Diagnose Arthritis?
Here are some of the ways how arthritis can be diagnosed.
- Scrutinizing the physical symptoms: After learning the symptoms you are having, your physician will check your joint movements, swellings, and redness to make a general assessment of your problem.
- Blood test: Your physician may ask you to undergo specific blood tests, including ESR, CRP, and anti-CGP, to detect the type of arthritis you are suffering from.
- Imaging test: Your doctor might ask you to go through the imaging tests like X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound to know the severity of your problem.
How to Choose the Best Shoes for Arthritis?
Wearing the right pair of shoes is a part of taking care of your arthritic feet. So, it is essential to prioritize the comfort and support factor of your footgear to fight back arthritis. For that, you need to consider some of the facts to pick the best shoe for arthritis.
1. The right shape and size of the shoe are essential:
The shoe you’re picking shouldn’t be too tight to your feet. If you have hammertoes or bunions, then a shoe with a wide and roomy toe box helps in making your feet feel relaxed. Having enough room for your feet to breathe helps in avoiding irritation at the foot area while offering much space for broad and deformed feet types.
On the contrary, too loose shoes won’t offer adequate support to your feet. Also, large and loosely-fit footwear can cause discomfort to your arthritic feet. So, know the size and shape of your feet properly, and then choose wisely.
2. Pay attention to the sole of the footwear for enhanced comfort:
The sole of a shoe decides its comfort factor. A shoe with a stiff sole is nothing but a disaster for an arthritis patient. So, a steady outer sole having enough bounce and shock absorbance is vital to protect your legs from strains and impacts. Also, the sole must be sturdy enough to keep your heel secured at the right place while avoiding sudden frictions and flexes.
There must be a soft cushiony midsole that will provide enough support to your feet and give a comfy feeling. And above all, your footgear should come with removable insoles to enable you to customize your shoe according to your own choice of orthotics.
Picking up a rocker sole with a slightly curved shape can add up to the benefits. A rocker sole helps in distributing the entire body weight to reduce strains and pressure on your aching arthritic feet.
3. Choose the show with enhanced arch support:
A shoe with secure arch support solves major problems like lack of balance and support. In other words, it helps in providing enough support to relieve your feet from pain caused due to imbalance and improper postures. Thus, it is crucial to pick a shoe with proper arch support to reduce the risks of twisting your feet and falling off while walking.
4. Choose the shoe material wisely:
A proper footgear for your problematic feet condition should be made of good material. It must be able to prevent irritation, perspiration, unwanted stinky odor, and blister formation on your feet. So, picking a shoe with soft, stretchable, and breathable material will be a smart decision to get luxury, comfort as well as air ventilation to your feet.
One must opt for footwear made of leather, mesh, neoprene, or synthetic fabric. These materials not only add enough stretch and comfort but also increase the breathability and odor-elimination capability of the shoe and keep your feet dry and smell-free.
5. Make sure the shoe comes with easy adjustability features:
Arthritis pains are quite unpredictable. So, to win over those difficult times, it is recommended to pick a shoe having easy adjustability and can be worn at ease. Also, it is essential to choose the closure wisely, as a shoe with a steady and reliable closure system holds your foot in place.
For arthritis patients, a lace-up closure system might be a problem since you would have to bend down and tie and untie the laces frequently. So, opt for a shoe with elastic closures or Velcro closings to make things easier for you.
6. Avoid High heels:
Honestly, high heels are not for arthritis patients. Walking on heels for a long time puts much pressure on your arch and heel area, which affects your tendons, muscles, and hips, and results in increased arthritic pain. Also, the risks of imbalances and sudden twists are double with high heels that will hurt your joints.
It is better to ditch high heels for the sake of comfort and the safety of your feet. A maximum of 1-1.5 inches heel can be permitted in your shoe, but exceeding that range will end up giving you much tension with your arthritis pain.
7. Choose a shoe having an excellent traction profile:
Especially being an arthritis patient, you won’t like to fall off while walking or jogging and hurt your waist, knee, or joints more. So, you must select a pair of shoes that provide adequate traction on various terrains.
Make sure your footwear is waterproof and has slip resistance so that you can even walk through slippery wet and oily surfaces. Usually, shoes having gum rubber outsoles are known to offer an outstanding grip on every kind of surface and help in maintaining your body posture and stance while walking.
8. Always check the durability of the shoe:
Last but not least, durability is one of the most critical factors to notice in a shoe that you’re planning to purchase. For whatever purpose you may buy a shoe, never forget to ensure its durability. No one would like to invest in shoes that tear off quickly. So, a good and durable shoe must be able to withstand everyday wear and tear and last for at least a couple of years, healing your arthritic pain.
Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Arthritis:
Will compression socks help arthritis?
Are eggs bad for arthritis?
What brand of shoes do podiatrists recommend for Arthritis?
Will an ankle brace help arthritis?
Not only the medications and therapies but also taking proper care of your arthritic feet is of utmost importance. Caring is the key to improving your lifestyle. Picking up the right shoe is crucial for your foot’s health.
In case you want our suggestions to choose the best one, then opt for Gravity Defyer Proven Pain Relief Women’s G-Defy Ion Athletic Shoes to gain the best experience. The Omega VersoShock sole, breathable mesh upper, roomy toe box, and removable inserts make this footgear an ideal choice for arthritic feet.
However, the other shoes mentioned above are equally good in providing comfort and relaxation to your feet. So now, depending upon your suitability and budget constraints, pick the best shoe to soothe your arthritic pain.
Dr Kristine has a Doctorate of Podiatric Medicine from New York College of Podiatric Medicine, and currently assists our team of shoe experts by fact-checking and confirming the information presented to the readers. As a podiatrist, she has previously worked with numerous athletes, working professionals, and high to low activity individuals on the impacts of a lifestyle on their feet. She has submitted many research papers on the role of the correct footwear in foot health and how to take adequate care of your feet.
Previously, she worked in a foot clinic attached to a hospital, before she decided to have a private practice in 2012. She has more than 15 years of experience in foot health and has been incredibly gracious in providing her expertise to the Wearsty team! Her patients have ranged from ordinary people ailing with foot problems regarding obesity, old age, and foot stress—to athletes, runners, and workers who have demanding routines.